As of the latest census as of 2016 by NSO, Nueva Era has a total population of 9,506. The total population of the municipality composed of Itneg/Tingguian, Ilocano, Bikolano, Cebuana, Ibanag, Pangasinan, Tagalog, Waray, and other not stated Regional groups..
Ilocano is the major dialect of the people and used as the mother tongue of almost all the inhabitants. Other dialects used are tingguian and tagalog. Major religious group in the area is Roman Catholic, followed by Pentecost Iglesia Ni Cristo and Seventh Day Adventist.